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pathophysiology of dengue fever, dengue viruses, dengue fever anatomy Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever
Dengue is a mosquito-borne infection which in recent years ....

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Where is dengue found?
Dengue viruses occur in most tropical areas of the world. Dengue is common in Africa, Asia, the Pacific, Australia, and the Americas. It is widespread in the Caribbean basin. Dengue is most common in cities but can be found in rural areas. It is rarely found in mountainous areas above 4,000 feet.The mosquitoes that transmit dengue live among humans and breed in discarded tires, flower pots, old oil drums, and water storage containers close to human dwellings. Unlike the mosquitoes that cause malaria, dengue mosquitoes bite during the day.
What are the signs and symptoms of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever?
Dengue fever usually starts suddenly with a high fever, rash, severe headache, pain behind the eyes, and muscle and joint pain. The severity of the joint pain has given dengue the name "breakbone fever." Nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite are common. A rash usually appears 3 to 4 days after the start of the fever. The illness can last up to 10 days, but complete recovery can take as long as a month.
Older children and adults are usually sicker than young children.Most dengue infections result in relatively mild illness, but some can progress to dengue hemorrhagic fever.
With dengue hemorrhagic fever, the blood vessels start to leak and cause bleeding from the nose, mouth, and gums. Bruising can be a sign of bleeding inside the body. Without prompt treatment, the blood vessels can collapse, causing shock (dengue shock syndrome). Dengue hemorrhagic fever is fatal in about 5 percent of cases, mostly among children and young adults.
How soon after exposure do symptoms appear?
The time between the bite of a mosquito carrying dengue virus and the start of symptoms averages 4 to 6 days, with a range of 3 to 14 days. An infected person cannot spread the infection to other persons but can be a source of dengue virus for mosquitoes for about 6 days.
How can dengue be prevented?
There is no vaccine to prevent dengue. Prevention centers on avoiding mosquito bites when traveling to areas where dengue occurs and when in U.S. areas, especially along the Texas-Mexico border, where dengue might occur. Eliminating mosquito breeding sites in these areas is another key prevention measure.Avoid mosquito bites when traveling in tropical areas:Use mosquito repellents on skin and clothing. When outdoors during times that mosquitoes are biting, wear
long-sleeved shirts and long pants tucked into socks. Avoid heavily populated residential areas. When indoors, stay in air-conditioned or screened areas. Use bednets if sleeping areas are not screened or air-conditioned.
If you have symptoms of dengue, report your travel history to your doctor. Eliminate mosquito breeding sites in areas where dengue might occur:Eliminate mosquito breeding sites around homes. Discard items that can collect rain or run-off water, especially old tires. Regularly change the water in outdoor bird baths and pet and animal water containers.

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