The 'set stage' refers
to the days of incubation prior to the final 2
days or 3 days before a hatch. Different species
have different incubation periods. Incubating
different species at the same time in the same incubator
is not recommended, especially if the incubator
is also used as a hatcher.
Birds in the wild frequently turn their eggs in
the nest. Similarly, turning eggs during incubation
prevents embryo death and unhealthy hatches.
Eggs ust be turned at least five times within a
24-hour period. Turning more frequently is better; once
per hour is best. This turning schedule must be
maintained even through weekends. An automatic turner
is recommended. If the incubator is equipped with
an automatic turner, eggs will be turned
at least every few hours.
Temperature, humidity and ventilation of incubator (set
Temperature in the incubator
should be 99.5 degrees F to 100 degrees F (37.5 degrees
C). If the temperature deviates more than degree from
100 degrees F, a poor hatch is likely. Temperature should
be checked at least twice a day.
Relative humidity should be set at 86 degrees F to 88
degrees F (30 degrees C) wet bulb temperature. Humidity
should not fluctuate more than 1 wet bulb degree. If the
incubator uses a passive humidity control system,
water should be added daily to the water pan or trough
to ensure correct humidity levels.
If the humidity in the incubator is too low or too high,
the hatch will fail. When humidity is too low during incubation,
the air cell will be too large at the time of hatch.
The contents of the egg will be too thick and sticky
for the chick to turn. The membranes will be too tough
to break. The navel will not close properly.
If the humidity in the incubator is too high during
incubation, too little water will evaporate from
the egg. The air cell will be too small for the
chick to reach during the hatching process.
The chick will either drown or the chick will be
too swollen with water to turn itself within the egg.
The yolk sac will also be too large for the navel to completely
close. These problems will cause the hatch to fail.
The air cell of the egg should become larger as
incubation progresses. Chicken eggs will
lose 12 percent to 14 percent of their total weight by
evaporation during incubation. The growth of this
air cell is a balance between temperature and humidity
during the incubation. Racks of eggs can be weighed
during incubation to detect problems with humidity
and evaporative loss before a hatch is destroyed.
The chick embryo uses oxygen and produces carbon
dioxide. This gas exchange is insignificant during the
early period of incubation or when a small number
of eggs are incubated. However, recommendations
of the incubator manufacturer should be followed
to assure that adequate oxygen is available to the developing
chicks. Near the end of the incubation period,
the eggs are nearly filled with the embryo. An incubator
filled with eggs contains a large animal mass that
requires large amounts of oxygen. Adequate ventilation
is needed during the end of the incubation period.
Particular attention should be focused on air vent settings,
and wet and dry bulb temperatures during the last third
Keep a daily record of the incubator
environment. This sample record is designed for use with
eggs that hatch after 21 days of incubation.
Record keeping can be used to detect mal- functions before
a disaster develops. Also, records of fertility
and embryo deaths alert the hatchery manager to
production, storage, or incubator problems so that
adjustments can be corrected before major losses occur.
Proper records call attention to deviations that could
destroy a producer's profits. A 5 percent loss of hatchability
can go unnoticed. However, a 5 percent loss is 100 percent
profit, and conditions that cause a 5 percent reduction
in hatchability also contribute to health problems
in successfully hatched chicks.
Stages in chick embryo development
Chick embryos that have been incubated for approximately 48, 72 and 96 hours after fertilization will be available for you to examine. However, specimens of similar ages post-fertilization may show a wide variation of maturation stages. The incubation times provide only an estimation of how far development of the embryo will have progressed. The temperature of incubation (which may be different among eggs depending on their locations within the incubator), as well as the rate of growth of the individual embryo itself will affect the overall ..... More
Description about incubation periods, sizes, eggs in clutch
Valuable Information For The Beginner To The Most Advanced Breeder (Collection of Books, videos, etc)
Incubator setting for parrot/parakeets
here to View total Incubation time to Hatch, time for transfer
to hatcher, Dry and Web bulb temperature for common bird:
Canary, Chicken, Cockatiel, Cockatoo, Conure, Sun Conure,
Dove, Duck, Muscovy Duck, Zebra Finch, Domestic Goose, Geese,
Grouse, Guinea, Lovebird, Macaw, Mynah Parakeet, Budgerigar,
Parrot, African Grey, Chukar Partridge, Peafowl, Ptarmigan,
Raven, Ringneck, Pheasant, Pheasant, Pigeon, Bobwhite Quail,
Japanese Quail, Swan, Turkey, Emu, Ostrich, Rhea
Poultry Egg Incubators, Chicken, Duck, Turkey,
Kiwi, Quail, Emu, Ostrich, ... This incubator features
automatic egg turning, forced air circulation and has
Family Self Sufficiency Chicken Incubator home build project
... The 'KUKU' chicken egg incubator is a low powered
non regulated incubator that is simple ... .more
UK based suppliers of Poultry incubators with capacities
of up to 120000 eggs available. Other poultry equipment
includes heat lamps, vermin control ... more